December 20, 2012

Someone found this post and contacted me about purchasing the vessel for his wife.  Even though the pics have been published previously here is a narrative about the creation of the vessel.

This piece was originally inspired and constructed for an invitational show in Paris, France called “Stations”. The show was held in a gallery made of ancient stone and it was on exhibition during the Passover Easter Season.  Fourteen USA artists from a wide array of disciplines each were given a station to create a work of art. The show was fascinating and vivacious in its interpretative views and reading between the lines of the titles.

I was invited to do an interpretation of Station #10 called: Stripped, where Jesus was beaten, thronged and stripped of His garments.   I had plans for the piece to be more graphic with the skin torn and ripped to bits for our wrong choices, misdoings and our wicked ways. But once the vessel dried I heard a calling of the maroon ( dried blood) dribbling  down the vessel as it made an interesting contrast against the butter cream innocent skin made of Icelandic lambs wool.  Though, I usually have no issue with destroying a piece to express my messages, this one beckoned me to leave it alone, a task that has taken  me 30 years to learn.  As artist, it is a fine line between pushing one’s idea and allowing it to stand.

I like to paint a composition then cut it up and weave it back together or dribble other paint over the composition.   In the 1990’s I designed wall blankets, I would create a composition on fabric, the size of a quilt then sew several together, using a machine free form design.  Slash the top layers to reveal the composition underneath, representing people and how we expose parts of our personality and sometimes different from public persona. There is a well known textile artist named, Tim Harding, who inspired me in the late 1980’s with the unraveling of cloth, which gave the cloth a soft pliable function and I employed this technique vivaciously in the late 80’s early 90’s.

In 2007, I answered an ad on Craig’s list to swap artist materials. I forget what I offered but I inherited a large array of wool roving.  I made felt in college using raw wool,  learning to  clean, card, spin and dyeing it but I was not terribly drawn or inspired by this scientific approach to self expression.  Creating the “canvas” so to speak was highly unappealing to me weather it was fabric, paper, reeds metal or wood until I grew increasing bored in winter of 2007 and wanted a new avenue.

I like unusual things and to me vessels made of lambs hair or wool is a lovely revelation because we normally use wool to clothe or keep us warm hence the  astonishment of making a work of art with no intended function  seems like a surprise.






  Previously posted pics


New fleece

December 5, 2012

I thought I posted this; it looks as though I do not understand my tablet as well as I hoped.  I can successfully do a few things but posting to my bog is not one of them.  Although to my credit I was able to upload this pic on Wednesday but then it has been sitting in the draft section of several days. Let’s be fair and say I was working on the tablet in my car not while driving mind you but sitting in a parking lot using an establishment’s WIFI.  Distractions still keep me from felting however I did clean off the table and get the studio ready to felt by spreading plastic across the print table and sorting through items which I have collected–you know for a future project.  YAY. Perhaps today after work and a shopping trip to Trader Joes, I will get at least a test felt completed. The daunting idea of cleaning all that wool is the main deterrent.

fleece 3 bags full

hello all, today’s post March 27th  is not about felting  but a good friend in his endeavor as a fine artist.  It is best to just post a link instead of me translating his vision and work.

Darin White

Sorry, Darin, for the delay nonetheless I was excited to see the Brooklyn show was a great success, thus congrats are in order. What is next?

I found this posting in my draft basket.  My blogging hit an all time low in the late winter and I am dragging to regain the momentum I once had.  I have been having fun with my adult son and ignoring any ideas and aspirations to create.  I cannot begin to explain how difficult it is to switch between the left hand brain activity of my day job, and the vibrant, creative right brain activity and energy in my studio. Excuses aside I stand empty handed, projects unfinished and allowing the technology of my smart phone to suck the life out of me.  I have shamelessly admitted the admiration of the smart phone developers is high.  I can now draw on my phone, in color and digitally record it. It takes me back to 1994 when I discovered the personal computers and the internet.  When I attended university in Durham, England, I met a nice chap, with whom I interacted for a few years even after my return to the USA.  Years, decades flew past me.  I decided to put this Internet thing to the test. I set out on a quest to find this chap.  The internet was not THAT refined, cataloged or databases had crude inter-connectivity in 1995, even though it only took four seconds to send an email to Australia;  my search took four months and resulted in a phone call in Tasmania. Shocked to hear each others voice, it was not brain surgery to conclude that this internet thing was not only useful but here to stay.


I was not terribly successful convincing other artists that putting their artwork on the Net, would give world wide expose, of course all those artist, now, have fancy websites and I do not.   When the US Science Foundation was the sole distributor of domain names, I had registered several in 1994 before there was a cost and my foresight provided a nice profit when I sold them to various firms.  Anyway, I tried to integrate the digital world and my creativity, which never clicked for me; I am not a graphic artist and was not terribly interested becoming one.  I missed the other input of my senses, the smell of the paint, and the feel of a lovely brush in dipping into paint and applying to a surface.  There is an inner pleasure when paint is applied to various surfaces whether it is smooth and slick like a Bristol paper or rough watercolor paper. The fragrance of indigo oxygenation when fabric is pulled from a vat or mono gum when applied to fabric for a dyeing resists. Now, the smell of wet wool is unmatched.

Felted Postcards

February 9, 2012

I adore postcards,  and have collected them for over 40 years, even though the internet can take us to exotic lands, postcards are a signal that some one thinks of you even while they are gone.  Over the years, I  have been in several multimedia post card exhibits and it is great fun.   I would like to see  a twist on the travel postcard event by  creating felting post-cards about HOME.

This challenge is called “Postcards from Home” and features small (4 inch by 6 inch) pictorials of scenes from you home environment: landscapes, perhaps a historical  point of interest.  Some suggestions to get you thinking about a pictorial postcard:  the natural environment, such as mountains, deserts or coastal scenery; native flora and fauna; images of agriculture such as farms, ranches and dairies; man-made scenes, such as towns and cities, bridges, monuments, museums, and theme parks; historical images from home past; and recreational settings.

Deadline:  August 15, 2012
Open to all
Size:  4 inches by 6 inches (traditional postcard size
Writing may be included
Make a label for the back of your postcard containing the following information:

Postcard from Home Challenge 2012
Your Name and Address
Title of Postcard
Location of scene

On a separate piece of paper, please include a short paragraph explaining the scene you felted and any additional information that you wish to share.  This information may be used in promotional materials and articles concerning this challenge.

Bring the finished postcards, or mail* the finished postcard to me.  I will document and photograph each postcard. I would like to take a display of these postcards to various exhibits. We have a Final Friday exhibit here in my hometown of Lawrence, KS. There is First Friday in Kansas City, MO. There is a large possibility of several national venues for a traveling exhibit but locations are undisclosed at this time.


Leave a response if you might be interested.  The pieces will be auctioned off for a charity fund raiser TBA later. So this is a mere feeler for a response.  I may extend it to fiberart postcards, since  my circle of acquaintances extend way into the fiber world: weaving, surface design, beading,  hand made papers,  fabric design, dying, indigo, baskets etc. i have yet to decide.  What a great way to get your work SEEN by a groups of people.

Works in Progress

November 26, 2011

Taken with Rebel T3

Work in Progress

Work still in progress. The re-bar needs to be straighten and waxed.  I am still working on the idea  and what I am actually conveying in this piece. I am using a new camera, which I am uncertain it does the work justice so the camera back get returned.  I have fifteen days for a final decision.

Work in Progress

This piece was a direct result of  my local fiber group by demonstrating how to achieve locks. This piece was made of raw fleece, un-scoured, uncombed or carded  with wee bits of previously dyed fleece.

he teal, aqua, blue piece was totally an experiment with un-carded, non-scoured fleece and white silk  gauze. Once the piece was felted then fulled, it  soaked in white vinegar then while still wet, it was bound with  cotton twine and scrunched together. Three shades of blue of acid dyes were mixed and dripped onto the wet wool. The silk readily absorbed the dye the most.  Once the dying was completed, wrapped into cellophane shrink wrap and nuked for 2.5 minutes on high power.  It was reste4d then additional 2 minutes in microwave. Not shown are the intact locks at the top, which adsorbed the deep midnight blue dye that match the silk portions. It was left to dry in the scrunched position.  The vessels is in progress as I am making a copper tubing to hold it.  Once completed the piece will be displayed in its entirety.

Untitled as work is in progress

Rework/Finishing Projects

March 23, 2011

I began the spiral Painting in November and just finished it today.

The Resist Alpaca vessel (before pic) began as jester’s hat for my nephew. Highly dissatisfied with the results it was tossed into the reject pile. Last week, with the coming of warm weather and the rejuvenation of spring air, I picked up the experiment gone array and began to reform it a vessel, which is the nice feature about Felt is it never truly locked into a shape.  It is much like a canvas that can be whitewashed and begin afresh. I am unsure of the vessel’s destiny but perhaps for some hand stamped acid dye and some decorative stitching.

Today, I also found in the discarded pile a brightly colored blue bag. I have added some decorative stitching and fulled it with my patio sized (88″ x 108″) bamboo screen.  Yes, I stitched it first then completed the fulling, I was unsure what would happen to the cotton thread, but it seems to not mind going through the fulling session.  I enjoyed this free form stitching because it lends more visual interest to surface. Sorry I could not photograph the detail but I am limited to my aging camera.

The black mohair ball that I felted last week got the same stitching with indigo thread as the blue bag; I re-fulled it, which shrank it to a mere 43 inches in circumference. It is the softest vessel that I have made today, it has a yummy soft, rich hand. The stitching on this vessel once dried might be nice with some shiny German Rayon embroidery thread.

Yikes, we have a tornado warning here in the Midwest of USA.  80F this morning and it is now a mere 60F so the storm is moving even though no funnel has been sited on the ground-just yet.

Dyeing a wool vessel

March 12, 2011

This unexpected vessel design was an exercise in creating color on a pure white vessel using acid dyes from Pro Chemical.  Once I felted and fulled the vessel, and it was completely dried, I folded vessel like a paper fan on one side.  I held the folds in place using metal pinch binder clips (the giant size). I wanted a random application opposed to a regular pattern, as the vessel was much too petite, so I added a few additional clips and even wood clothespins.   I mixed the acid dye with a tiny bit of water to create a paste then it was mixed with a pint of water with a pinch of non-iodized salt and tumbled into one of my stainless steel bowls and placed  on top of the electric burner. When the dye became 140F, I submerged the bound vessel into the dye.   Once I was satisfied with the saturation point judged by personal preference, I put the bound vessel into a plastic bag to slowly cool, this allowed plenty of time for the dye to penetrate and since protein, fibers require heat to open the cell structure and allow the dye to penetrate the cell membranes. .  I let it sit overnight in the bag, though this step is not necessary.   The following morning I rinsed the vessel but the dye had correctly exhausted or absorbed by the protein wool fiber.  When I rinsed it, no excess dye bled into the drain. It was a gratifying lesson, as I have never approached wool dyeing in this manner. The high contrast of the white and turquoise gives a vivid graphic design, which is definitely out of my comfort zone, and I enjoy more subtle designs but this one is promised to an adoring fan.

Last Scheduled Vessel

February 26, 2011

Working on technique once again.

Another wintry storm after 7 days of 65F spring weather.  It is gray, icy, snowy and we are warned to stay in door because of the dangerous ice;  great day to felt.  I am trying of vessels and  am ready to move forward with more felt paintings; so, this will most likely be my last vessel.  I might add some stamped dye images,  I am unsure at the moment.

Flying Geese Vessel

February 23, 2011

This piece is available for sale at the Women Made Gallery  It is made of Mohair, Alpaca and Icelandic Lamb Fleece approximately 33 inches in circumference.  The abstract aubergine flying geese has been stamped on using a thickened dye. Once it was dry it was steamed in a commercial Chinese Steamer (similar to home bamboo stove-top steamers) with  three inches of white distilled vinegar  in the bottom portion covered and boiling over a hot plate.  To keep the condensation from dripping back onto the vessel, clean unprinted newsprint paper was put under the lid while it steamed twenty minutes.

Piercing the Vessel Walls

February 9, 2011

I have packed one of my studio walls bookcases with last years felting projects including many vessels.  Naturally, to me they are not just empty containers but marks of time and last winter experiments.   Yesterday I began a timid deconstruction of one such Vessel that I called “Five A”.  If my recall is correct, I had just acquired some luscious white mohair,(from the local Yarn Barn) which reminded me of a fine Pink Mohair sweater I owned as a child. I loved the texture of that sweater and the slight sheen it reflected in the bright school florescent lights. Instead of listening to the teacher’s explanation of algebra or the revolutionary war, I would gaze into the curly swirling mohair fibers, which were much more interesting than what the teacher had to say. Anyway I digress, and if one looks carefully the wisps of mohair is easily seen on the surface of Five A” much like it did in the pink sweater.

Continuing my experiments with direct application dyeing, I thickened the Pro Chemical Acid dye with sodium alginate thickener so I could stamp dye on to “Vessel Five A”. I soaked the vessel in solutions of warm water and white distilled vinegar.  A couple of decades ago I was mesmerized by found and scrap objects.  My studio used to be located close to a wood shop and I was intrigued by the various discarded cutouts left at the feet of a ban saw covered with sawdust.  Many of the interesting shapes found a home after I first covered a side with a glue adhesive and a commercial wool felt, these made handsome, durable stamps.  If one were to survey my work over the past 30 years, one could easily see the evidence of these stamps that I dipped into paint, dye, and textile Createx, which were foundational visual textures in much of my work. Anyway,  the teal dye was added to the thickener and stamped on using the stamp in the photo.  The eggplant dye was stamped on using the bottom of a wooden spoon and the dye was thinner thus one can see how it bleed into surrounding areas and did not hold its shape. The Vessel was wrapped into cellophane and nuked in microwave for 3 minutes on high, allowed to cool then nuked  and additional two minutes. I proceeded to full the shape tighter and tighter.  I reshaped it so it no longer resembles the original “Five A” vessel.  Oh this is a moot point but I attempted discharge dying that failed miserably.  I could not get the thiox thick enough and even strong enough to maintain a shape this I scraped the idea for now.

Today I pierced the walls of “FiveA” with my new dressmaking Gingher shears slicing bits and pieces from the vessel that created a repetitive design in the teal colored wool.  I found this snipping away most satisfying in a peek a boo fashion. In the past, I used slashing and cutting the surface of items in a metaphoric approach to communicate or provoke thoughts of universal emotions. We, as humans, have all experienced betrayals, rejections, or humiliations from those we trusted and that slash in out heart rarely heals without a scar.  It seems there is much room to push this envelop further and see how far one can distress the vessel and maintain the  integrity of the wool  So on to more cuttings.

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January 23, 2011

I finally escaped the world’s troubles and got into the studio today.  I madly felted three Vessels.  One lattice, which I intensely love, a ball  with hand applied acid dye using a natural sponge (I was surprised the sponge is now also dyed) and another vessel made of poodle , mohair,  Icelandic wool and  hand dyed silk.  I will be out-of-town Monday,  Tuesday either planning a funeral for my car or biting my nails.  I will write more description and add pics some time after Wednesday or when I have some direction for my transportation.

African Party

September 19, 2010

The cool autumn air filled ones lungs Friday night when I attended a party in Lawrence, KS, which revolved around Africa accentuating the launch for Mayhew and son’s three-week tour of Africa.  The house environment colorfully reflected the travels of the Mayhew family with heavily graced walls in native crafts from not only Europe, Latin and South America, Australian, Korea, Indonesia, Hawaii, Native American but also African folk art. People who have supported African missionaries or live part time in Africa or even those like me who just have an interest packed the party with their attractive presence.  I studied African textiles what seems like yesterday but in reality was several decades ago, ack!  What prompted my African studies was its connection to the earth and not ethereal or complicated by man’s love of commerce or money.  Not to infer it is pristine or free of man’s influences because they are after all, made with men’s hands on the “dark” continent filled with a rich history of plunder. As most of us have read Joseph Conrad’s short story, “Heart of Darkness” that only briefly reflects such.  Yet, if one scratches the surface of historical ancestral designs, there lays simplistic richness with deep roots of generational spirituality abiding in a continent of dwindling resources.

Anyway, at the party I reconnected with old friends, met new ones and some with interesting businesses. One such company was Stubenraugh Designs. The owner is a truly gifted artist, with fine art background who has found a new love: copper. I was particularly drawn to his site as copper is my secret lover.  I integrate it into my work, when it fits.  It has been my metal of choice since the 1980’s and my studio is laced with copper paint, copper wire, copper mesh, copper tubing, copper glitter, sheets of hammered copper, get the picture? Copper reminds me of earth’s red clay, as in the glistening hills of Sedona, Arizona and a glorious trip the Mayhews and my family took to the Grand canyon.  The sumptuousness of Stubenraugh’s designs is particularly interesting because of the textures and his choices of patinas. He uses an ordinary sheet of metal and turns it into a magical, mystical, section of craft that blurs the line with art. A piece of his decorative copper, which he has developed, a foolproof patina of pattern, is unmatched. Stubenraugh also sells extra thin sheets available for use in art books, weavings, and other textile arts. This winter, as continue with various felting art projects, I hope to incorporate more into my work. Look at his site and I am confident you will be as mesmerized, as I am.

Metallic Polymers

June 3, 2010

Hello all! I have missed you as I have been doing many experiments. I am particularly interested in paints or getting color onto surfaces.  I have always been fascinated by the chemistry of paints of al kinds especially when I made my own gouache and watercolor paints. In 1990, I did a series of paintings on unstretched canvas using latex paints.  Now, twenty years later, I see why house paint only have a ten year warranty as it begins to crack and peal.  I am not sure if  Jackson Pollock ‘s paintings cracked but  of course his are kept in climate controlled environments but also,  perhaps the ingredients of his paint were different from today’s latex paints.  I was surprised,today, as I researched the binder of acrylic paints which are a direct result/invention from Pollock’s experiments with happenstance latex. I never thought about it but there were no acrylic paints until the pop revolution of the 1960’s. I found that retro tidbit of information interesting.

I discovered  a regret, when I had the opportunity to study chemistry, I immaturely thought that I would never need or use that sort of information , thus, I quickly flung the coursework aside. However, one will make many crooked lines if they are always looking backwards, so I plow forward.

I used a simple cylinder vessel and before it dried, I soaked it in a metallic glazing solution, which  I mixed using acrylic copper paint.


The results were interesting,  the copper liquid was absorbed by the wool, coloring the white vessel to a lovely shade of muted tones then as the liquid evaporated it deposited a nice residue of the metallic particles around the lip, furthermore the polymers in the glaze take on characteristics similar to a stiffener. This excited me, as the only stiffeners I have found were all water-soluble hence, in humid climates, you can guess accurately the results. I am pressing onward to  new horizons  with textiles.  I did not document a before pic  but this vessel was 100% white wool before soaking.  The images were applied while wet with a foam brush. To those into soft wearable art, this technique could be repulsive it’s stiffens wool fibers not merely on the surface but throughout the vessel. I like the idea of creating a 3D wool canvas.

Detail Copper Lip


February 18, 2010

This is a prototype for an experimental interpretative piece using felt and wood. This current wool envelop is 5 x 8 inches and I intend to increase it only 100% 10 x 16 inches. The gold gilding on the prototype is a faux gold leafing and am in the process of acquiring an individual to apply 23K gold leafing, I intend to make the wood more dimensional voluminous.  I am also toying with other mediums besides wood however MORE research is in order.

The distressed wool was felted even though in this photo it looks more like roving tossed array. I used very thin pieces of Icelandic fleece, individually carding each wisp then, using only two very thin layers and several holes were left intentionally barren.  I felted with the usual bubble wrap but longer than usual.  I did not roll it in bamboo, which is my normal way of fulling.  The goal for the final piece is that the felt will fit the inner core more closely like a glove so the torn and raveling  will be more apparent and not so helter-skelter looking.

Kids Play Hat

February 18, 2010

I really need to not describe an item until I have photos ready as I have nothing to say about this FUN hat for my nephew.  I am developing a collection of unusual toys so the kids will enjoy playing at Auntie Deb boah’s house.  This hat is 14 x 14 inches and the nest one I intend to be inspired by Dr. Seuz’s illustrators of “Old Hat New Hat”.

Home Stretch

January 23, 2010

The hat is dried, pressed and all shaping is completed. I will add twill tape on inside to prevent excessive stretching. Of course the cold weather is most likely gone for the winter. It is a rare occasion that we have more than one nasty  spell requiring hats and we had three solid weeks of it  at Christmas time with record snowfall. I will post dimensions later but I am off to perform some technology troubleshooting for a national concern.

Winter Alpaca Hat

Alpaca Hat Drying

January 22, 2010

Fulling  of the wool is done, and now shaping / drying of alpaca is in progress. The jury is still out on my feelings about this hat. It certainly is soft but I am disappointed in the quality of the alpaca, but thanks to Christine from yesterdays post, I  have a better understanding of my issues.  As I stated yesterday this vendors goods are probably divine for spinning customers but the wool is not very good for felting.  I am leaning towards only buying wool in fleece form.  The hassle of processing fleece wool is definitely worth any extra work in exchange for a full comprehension of the wool’s history, i.e type of fleece where on the animal, how it was washed, how it was dyed and now, I see the various layers of hair will not felt.

PS the over view photo was once again taken with the blackberry –and I moved during the shutter release.


January 17, 2010

Some people can switch direction on a dime, as the term goes and often I can be creative enough to do likewise but not today.  I am still unopposed with the residue of the car accident, so, today was spent in projects that are more familiar: repairing or restoring technology.  I inherited a desktop computer, which I promptly moved to my studio and I have been piddling with it for what seems like an eternity for the refurbishment.  The duped machine was infiltrated by  two-legged rodents with a virus that disabled the software clear to the core of the computer, the BIOS. I managed to restore 99% of it but there was one lingering component though small, rendered it useless for my purposes. Today was the designated day to research and fix it; hence, I halted all thoughts towards wool.  Actually prior to the decision of working on the computer, I rewetted the amber vessel AGAIN and reshaped it. I am struggling with a desirable solution for drying to the desired shape. Today, I packed the wet vessel that had been towel dried, with recycled plastic shopping bags, and perched it upside down on a jar. I would prefer something that pressed the vessel tautly like a similar shape that is a wee bit larger than the felted vessel  perhaps I could insert an air-filled balloon on my next vessel. No photos.

Back in Drivers Seat

January 13, 2010

Sparing you all the sorted details of my recent illness, I can say with all confidence that I am back on my feet. Today, I not only accomplished many neglected household chores, I had a long lingering lunch with girl friends then completed the day by felting three new items. The luncheon was a birthday celebration (another Jack Benny year) which was casual and liberally laced with laughter, amongst some sobering moments and followed with a nice cup of coffee and talk of a new book club readings from turn of the century.  The birthday lady received a felted “date clutch” in shades of red.  I am calling my little clutch purses—date clutch as they comfortably  hold lip gloss, ID, credit card, a hanky and house keys secured with a magnetic closure.  It was such a hit with everyone that I was commissioned to make three new ones for out of town daughters.  My photography studio which is a separate room from my art studio has three stations, one is a postal  center with all the necessary supplies for sending parcels, another section is for gift wrapping, ribbons, boxes, and the other is (was) set up for photographing. Naturally, with the holidays, this room got abundant use and I needed the black backdrop for a project, the lights became caddywhompus and completely disassembled one-step after another, consequently, I would not expect photos from me anytime soon.

Back to my saga of my 2.5 week of sickness while in bed recuperating, I made use of a new gift , artist markers. I spent many days sketching  new ideas, filling pages with doodles, researching material ideas for new projects,  exploring possible revenue avenues with potential  trips  for teaching.

Several afternoons last week I thought my ills was gone so I spent several days processing, dyeing and carding alpaca. I over-dyed some natural gray alpaca wool with shades of cerulean, algae green and midnight blues resulting in deep and nice jewel tones. I, also, had natural brown alpaca which is very soft but is definitely courser than the other alpaca that has amber-bronze undertones that I over dyed in shades of nutmeg, cinnamon, cordovan and cherry wood and a burnt umber and a few hanks of burnt sienna. It is exciting to discover that I quickly understand the slight variances in the wool. The courser fiber does not felt easily and seems feeling tacky (I acquired this wool over the internet) Even though I have rinsed it, thinking it was not dyed properly.  I am beginning to wonder if these wools have been dyed with something other than professional acid dyes.  Sadly, I am no longer interested in wool that I have not touched; I suppose this is one of the curses of knowledge. I am certain there are excellent suppliers out there but I have been burned once too often to bother with buying unseen/ untouched. One source sent yarn that had been card after it was spun and made it into roving. In theory, this seems like an acceptable idea but it tends to over work the wool , weakening the fibers into short pieces, it is not acceptable for felting at a professional level.

White is White

August 28, 2009

white is white

white is white

Using my stash of alpaca wool combined with merino to shape this vessel. The goal was to get as thin as possible maintaining the integrity of the vessel. It is only 3 layers of wool thick.  It is fulled and  rinsed in a sizing, which makes it very sturdy.